The types of 5-Axis CNC machining

September 17,2021

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The five-axis linkage CNC machine tool is a high-tech, high-precision machine tool specially used for processing complex curved surfaces. This machine tool system is useful for a country’s aviation, aerospace, military, scientific research, precision equipment, high-precision medical equipment and other industries. Has a decisive influence. The equipment manufacturing industry is the cornerstone of a country's industry. It provides important means for the development of new technologies, new products, and modern industrial production. It is an indispensable strategic industry.

 

Types of 5-Axis CNC machining

 

The five-axis machine tool is developed from the original three-axis machining center (5 Axis Machining). According to ISO regulations, when describing the motion of a CNC machine tool, a right-handed rectangular coordinate system is used; the coordinate axis parallel to the main shaft is defined as the z axis, and the rotation coordinates around the x, y, and z axes are A, B, and C, respectively. The movement of each coordinate axis can be realized by the worktable or the movement of the tool, but the direction is defined by the movement direction of the tool relative to the workpiece. Usually five-axis linkage refers to the linear interpolation movement of any 5 coordinates among x, y, z, A, B, and C. In other words, five axes refer to the three moving axes of x, y, and z plus any two rotating axes.

 

The five-axis has the following classifications according to the linkage shaft swing mechanism.

 

1. Workbench cradle type

 

Based on the foundation of the traditional three-axis machining center, plus the cradle-type table, the workpiece swings to become a 3+2 five-axis linkage machining center. The linkage axis is X/Y/Z/A/C, and the B axis does not rotate in the Y axis direction.

 

2. Vertical spindle double swing head

 

There is generally an electric spindle with a loose broach structure in the middle of the swing head, so the size of the double swing head itself is not easy to be small, plus the need for the range of movement of the double swing head, so the processing of the five-axis linkage machine tool with the double swing head structure The range should not be too small, but the bigger the better, generally the gantry type or the moving beam gantry type. The linkage axis is X/Y/Z/A/C, and the B axis does not rotate in the Y axis direction.

 

3. Horizontal spindle double swing head

 

In the five-axis linkage of the double swing head based on the horizontal machining center structure. The linkage axis is X/Y/Z/B/C, and the A axis does not rotate in the X axis direction.

 

4. Worktable swing type

 

After the direct drive motor matures, the structure of the five-axis linkage has also been greatly improved. The entire workbench can perform double swing. At present, the C-axis direct drive can reach a certain speed to achieve the effect of turning. The linkage axis is X/Y/Z/B/C, and the A axis does not rotate in the X axis direction.

 

5. The spindle of the worktable swings

 

According to the evolution of the swing mechanism, the worktable and the spindle swing separately to form a combination of the two. The linkage axis is X/Y/Z/A/C, and the B axis does not rotate in the Y axis direction.

 

Final thoughts

 

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